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Nature's fields: a neglected model for increasing food production Darryl S. South Pacific Indigenous Nuts M. Stevens , B. Evans , R. American code and later lectotypifications of linnaean generic names dating from a case study of discrepancies J. Mcneill , Eric A. Odell , Laurie L.

Started by Ms. With an innovative branding strategy and brand names and products protected by the intellectual property IP system, the company continues to bring the traditions, smells, and essences of the lush islands of Fiji to consumers throughout the world. Fiji is endowed with a total land area of over 18, square kilometers that comprises hundreds of islands and islets.

Fijian islands exhibit a wide range of geographical features, such as mountain ranges reaching over 1, meters high, rolling hills, plains, coral reefs, and white sand beaches. One way in which trees, shrubs, and other plant species arrive to Fiji is via the ocean currents. For example, a seed will fall from a tree on a beach on another island or land mass thousands of kilometers away.

When the tide changes, the seed is picked up and tossed into the warm currents of the Pacific Ocean. As it travels the waves, it absorbs nutrients and elements from the ocean while being protected from direct sunlight. The nut then washes ashore on the beach of a Fijian island, takes root, and starts to grow.

Out of the hundreds of thousands of seed-bearing plant species, only a few hundred produce seeds that can withstand the journey through the ocean currents to a new home such as a Fijian island. The climate, geography, and remoteness of Fiji have thereby served to create a country filled with unique and diverse flora. Coconut and a variety of pine trees such as the casurina pine that reaches 20 meters high dot the beaches of the islands while rainforests make up the interior.

Mangroves are also abundant, and are crucial to Fijian islands because they serve to strengthen the coastlines and protect the reefs. Sugarcane, papaya, and lavender are just a few in the long list of flora in Fiji that have provided local populations with natural resources for millennia. Fijians have relied on surrounding flora and other natural resources for many different uses, passing their traditional knowledge down over generations.

One such use is for weaving, which has a rich history in the country. Leaves, grass, bark, and husks of local flora are skillfully woven into useful items and artistic expressions. For instance, coconut husks are used to create magimagi , which is a rope-like material that is made from weaving together the fiber of the husks discarded during coconut harvesting. Magimagi was traditionally used as a binding material instead of nails or screws, which were unavailable.

It was also used to adorn architectural structures with decorative and intricate designs, and skilled magimagi weavers continue to apply their craft today.

Fler böcker av Elmer D Merrill

Surrounded by the ocean and tropical forests, Fijians also have a rich history of traditional knowledge of harnessing local resources for food and medicinal purposes. Should a drought occur, people know the appropriate trees and leaves to tap into for water.

They also know what plants grow well where and in what time of year, and their skill in fishing has been perfected over thousands of years. Furthermore, Fijians have intricate knowledge of the benefits of oil extracted from nuts, leaves, and flowers, harvesting it for medicinal and beauty purposes. While the country enjoys an abundance of traditional knowledge in handcrafts, agriculture, fishing, and medicine, much of it has not been harnessed.

Pure Fiji is one company, however, that has been able to tap into this traditional knowledge, imbue it with modern techniques, and utilize natural ingredients to develop Fijian products that can be appreciated throughout the world. One day in , Ms. The first was when they saw a group of school children happily playing outside, their faces glowing due to coconut oil applied to ward off mosquitos. The second occasion was when they saw rolls of vau hibiscus tiliaceus , or beach hibiscus leaves being unloaded from a nearby truck.

Sandollars to produce pressed soap made from natural local ingredients. Initially two products were produced: Waiwai ni Viti coconut oil and Sovu ni Viti soap.

Carlos Noronha Feio ' Plant Life of the Pacific World - Exhibition at IMT Gallery in London

The first completed products were sold to Tappoo Department Stores Tappoo , a major retailer in the country. To that end, in the Austins opened Pure Fiji to handle the development and export of new and existing products. After researching different strategies, Pure Fiji decided to focus on the niche market of upscale yet still affordable soap, beauty, and health products. Doing so allowed the SME to differentiate itself, command higher prices, and help mitigate high exportation costs. The company employs a skilled industry chemist at its headquarters in the capital city of Suva to assist in the development of new and unique products made from these ingredients and, when necessary, complementing ingredients and tropical fragrances.

Moreover, the SME has used its experience and the skill and traditional knowledge of employees in local rural communities to develop additional product lines, such as biodegradable gift paper, wedding accessories, candles, and aroma sticks and mists. Pure Fiji has also created a line of infusion products based on a specific local ingredient, such as coconut, star fruit, and mango.

Seagrasses

For each ingredient, the company has developed oils, lotions, soaps, shampoos, and conditioners that can be used in spas and at home. I think the products have a natural and fresh look that is immediately associated with the tropical South Pacific nation of Fiji. Through these and other products such as gift baskets, handmade with locally sourced Fijian ingredients, Pure Fiji has developed a brand that not only stands for products of high quality, but also one that is affordable and brings the Fijian experience to the customer. In addition to the main Pure Fiji brand under which a wide variety of products are sold such as beauty, skin and hair care, and oil, the company has developed other brands to differentiate some of its products.

Instead, the SME allows its products and brands to speak for themselves, finding much success through this and word of mouth advertising.

vegetation region

For example, in , organizers of the 54th Annual Primetime Emmy Awards the Emmys , a major television award event in the USA, were looking for products to include in a gift basket given to each nominee. Having developed strong brand names, Pure Fiji knew that protecting them was essential for continued growth and as a deterrent to potential infringers.

Despite its name, the Pacific is a vast body of water teeming with activity. Much of the ocean is still waiting to be explored, but human activities like industrial fishing, deep-sea mining, and fossil-fuel burning are already changing it in significant ways.

The vast body of water is home to some of the most unique life forms on Earth and contains the deepest reaches known to humankind. Find out more about the ocean, including the consequences of climate change. The Pacific Ocean stirs up some of the strongest hurricanes ever seen. For example, in the strongest storm of the year was Super Typhoon Mangkhut.

It hit the Philippines in late September before dissipating over mainland China. Hurricanes, typhoons, and cyclones are actually different names for the same weather pattern. Hurricane is used in the eastern Pacific, typhoon in the northwestern Pacific, and cyclone in the southwestern Pacific.

Mud, vegetation on new Pacific island baffle scientists

The storms feed on the energy of warm water, making the Pacific a powerful breeding ground for them. The resulting chain of volcanoes is roughly 25, miles long and springs to life where the Pacific tectonic plate slides against or collides into the other tectonic plates that circle it. The subduction of tectonic plates—when a plate slides beneath another one—in certain areas also helps form deepwater trenches. Learn why healthier oceans means a healthier planet, and how you can help. It's the deepest known spot on the planet—deeper than Mt.

Everest is tall, reaching down roughly seven miles.


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The deepest point in the trench is called Challenger Deep, at 36, feet down. Humans descended into the Challenger Deep in inside a U.

Navy submersible, and film director and explorer James Cameron made a solo trip in